Spotlight on Energy Research highlights current research projects of members of the Energy Science Center. Get an insight of what our researchers are working on at the moment in the fields of mobility, renewable energies, consumer behaviour, policy, smart grids, and more. Browse for articles by selecting categories from below or use the search function to find a more specific topic.

Modelling and assessing energy and climate strategies for Switzerland

A special issue on modelling climate policy in Switzerland has been published in the Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics. Under the umbrella of the Swiss Energy Modelling Platform (SEMP), five…


The minimal realization of electronic synchronous machines

With the recent changes in energy-production and with the extensive penetration of renewables into distribution networks, the power system models are again under close evaluation. In this project we…


Scenarios for a low-CO2 Swiss energy system

The Joint Activity Scenarios & Modelling (JASM) bundles the knowledge of all eight Swiss Competence Centers for Energy Research (SCCER) to generate scenarios, evaluating how Switzerland can…


Bounded rationality in attitudes towards replacement of inefficient appliances: Evidence from Nepal

Bounded rationality is an important behavioral failure responsible for the energy-efficiency gap, whereby consumers underinvest in energy-efficient technologies. One means of addressing this is by…


Systematic environmental assessment of global power generation

Reliable and affordable energy supply is the backbone of today's societies. It comes at a cost, though: Emissions into air, water and soil pollute the environment and cause diseases among humans. For…


99% Efficient Isolated Three-Phase PFC Rectifier

Data centers, which are key elements of the worldwide information processing and communication infrastructure are estimated to consume 300 TWh annually, which equals a continuous dissipation of 34…


Impact of Human Behaviour on Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

Within the context of different energy transition pathways for the city of St. Gallen, Switzerland, the Laboratory for Energy Conversion is conducting holistic assessments that account for different…


Highly Efficient 10kV SiC-Based Solid-State Transformers

The increasing number of high-power DC applications such as data centers or electric vehicle charging facilities demand for highly efficient and highly compact Medium-Voltage (MV) connected DC power…


Smart Monitoring, Inspection and Life-Cycle Assessment of Wind Turbines

Within an ERC starting grant award on the topic of “Smart Monitoring, Inspection and Life-Cycle Assessment of Wind Turbines”, the chair of structural mechanics is leading a comprehensive measurement…


Design Optimization of Desanding Facilities for Hydropower Schemes

Hydro-abrasive turbine wear caused by sediments in the water has negative effects on hydroelectric power generation. Desanding facilities are adequate countermeasures, but often do not meet the…


NEST HiLo: thermal activation of a lightweight structural floor element

A/S Research Group develops a thermally active building system for a vaulted floor element that allows to harness energy from low temperature sources while at the same time ensuring thermal comfort…


Exploring the need for natural gas in the Swiss power system

Many future electricity scenarios, including those developed for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), use natural gas to bridge the transition to renewables. But such scenarios are inconsistent…


Progress Towards Designed Membranes For All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Grid-scale storage of electricity is vital in energy scenarios with a high share of renewable electricity generation, such as wind and solar power. Redox flow batteries are particularly suited for…


Capturing usage patterns of a comprehensive Mobility-as-a-Service offer with GPS-tracking – First results from the SBB Green Class project

In 2017, the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS) launched the SBB Green Class[1] project, a one-year pilot study in which 140 participants across Switzerland were offered a comprehensive…


Enhanced Fretting Fatigue Resistance of Conductors for High Voltage Overhead Lines (CONFAT)

Enhanced Fretting Fatigue Resistance of Conductors for High Voltage Overhead Lines (CONFAT)

While overhead-line electricity transmission grids are generally well established in Europe, and there is not a big incentive to install new or replace existing conductors, there is a high interest…


Hydro-abrasive erosion in Pelton turbines: monitoring, prediction and mitigation

Hydraulic turbines are eroded by sediment-laden high-speed flow. Turbine erosion has negative effects on the cost of electricity production and on the energy efficiency. To mitigate these negative…


From Location Tracking to Personalized Eco-Feedback: 
Results from the GoEco! Study

Todays modern smartphones are not only widely used, but also often equipped with GPS receivers and other sensors to allow constant monitoring of their users’ locations and in some cases even…


Measuring energy policy mixes’ content

Public policy plays an important role in incentivizing a transition of the energy sector towards technologies with low greenhouse gas emissions. However, measuring policy is not easy – especially as…


Narrowing the energy efficiency gap: The impact of educational programs, online support tools and energy-related investment literacy

A higher adoption rate of energy-efficient appliances is expected to contribute towards improvement in energy efficiency within the residential sector. In this study, we explore the possibility that…


Alternative synthetic perspectives for CO2 hydrogenation towards liquid chemical energy carriers

Synthetic liquid fuels are ideal vectors for the distribution and storage of sustainable energy, allowing the exploitation of the actual infrastructure for fossil hydrocarbons. Such chemical energy…


Experiments and modelling of rate-dependent transition delay in a stochastic subcritical bifurcation

A recent publication of the CAPS laboratory studies the complex dynamics of a lab-scale combustor subject to thermoacoustic instability. This phenomenon is a recurrent issue in constant pressure…


Surveying the ice volume of glaciers – a shrinking resource for hydropower exploitation – with helicopter-borne ground penetrating radar

Melt water from glaciers makes a significant contribution to the overall discharge of Swiss rivers, especially during hot and dry summers. Consequently, the reduction of the ice volume in the Alps…


Coordination and Optimization of Run-of-River Hydropower Plants

Run-of-river hydropower plants can supply much needed flexibility to the power system. As wind turbines and solar panels supplant nuclear, coal, and natural gas generation, the flexibility from…


Electrical Insulation Challenges in Future Smart Grids: Power Electronics Meets High-Voltage Technology

Traditionally, most high-voltage insulation systems in electrical power transmission applications are stressed with DC or 50 Hz AC voltage. This article provides a short summary on the challenges…


Nudging the Poor and the Rich – A Field Study on the Distributional Effects of Green Electricity Defaults

Choice defaults have become an increasingly popular and seemingly inexpensive public policy tool. Yet, there is scant knowledge on the distributional consequences of such nudges for different groups…


Optimal control of HVDC links for enhancing power system stability

The property of an AC power network to return to a stable equilibrium point and synchronism after a disturbance is known as rotor-angle stability or transient stability. Maintaining transient…


Ultra-compact and highly efficient battery interface for traction applications

Approximately one-third of the worldwide primary energy is consumed in the transport sector. In order to reduce the environmental impact of the transportation, alternative propulsion systems as for…


Split battery energy storage: more than the just the sum of its parts

What if we told you, that splitting a 5 mega-watt-hour battery energy storage system into 24 smaller blocks, each large enough to supply over 30 households for a whole day, can improve its energy…


Energy Efficiency of an Electrodynamically Levitated Hyperloop Pod

The team Swissloop, formed by 40 ETH students, achieved the remarkable 3rd place in 2017-finals of the SpaceX Hyperloop Pod Competition. In order to provide a scientific foundation and further…


Strategic Questions in the Oil Market

The Center for Security Studies (CSS) has just published a CSS Policy Analysis on the political and security effects of recent changes in the global oil market. Two trends seem to dominate the…


Optimal Renewables Portfolio to Achieve 45% Renewable Electricity in Central Europe by 2030

Unlike the EU’s 2020 energy strategy, in its 2030 energy strategy, the EU seeks to achieve a target of 45% renewable-generated electricity with no binding national targets for each member state. This…


A New Player in Grid-Level Stationary Energy Storage – Efficient and Low Cost Aluminum Chloride-Natural Graphite Battery

A new rechargeable aluminum chloride-graphite battery was designed using processed natural graphite flakes in its cathode. The major performance metrics – energy density (up to 62 Wh kg-1 ), power…


Modelling the System Adequacy of the Swiss Electricity Supply

The Research Centre for Energy Networks (ETH Zurich) in collaboration with the Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Water Supply (FoNEW, University of Basel) recently published the results of a…


Forecasting Local Consumption Patterns Based on Smart Meter Data and Neural Networks

The roll-out of Smart Meters in electric distribution grids allows grid operators to attain grid transparency, i.e. detailed visibility of the status of their grid infrastructure. Artificial neural…


Energy Harvesting for Next Generation Freight Trains

Remote sensors and actuators are gaining in importance for the Internet of Things (IoT) and energy harvesting could power these systems directly at the location of consumption. In distributed systems…


Potential for future hydropower plants (HPPs) in Switzerland

Climate change leads to glacier retreat in the Swiss Alps. New potential locations for HPP reservoirs become ice-free, and additional meltwater from glaciers may be available for production. Seven…


Autonomous Decision Trees for Real-Time Monitoring and Diagnostics of Wind Turbines

Owners, operators and manufacturers of wind turbines (WTs) spend significant resources on discovering root causes of faults in components on WTs. The Chair of Structural Mechanics is developing a…


Safe operations of interdependent gas and electric systems

Gas and electric networks are characterized by strong interdependencies, which occur at the level of gas-fired power plants and electric compressors. Due to the increasing exploitations of gas as…


The Internet of things – An example of optimized transportation for transporting beverage consumables

Applications of Internet of Things are wide, from home automation to industrial operations. An Industrial Internet of Things solution developed by an ETH spin-off (Smart Home Technology GmbH) is…


Bioethanol from wood – The solution for a sustainable fuel supply in Switzerland?

Second generation bioethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass, like e.g. wood, offers great opportunities for a sustainable supply of liquid fuels. In collaboration with the Berner Fachhochschule…


Optimal Integration of Distributed Battery Storage in Low Voltage Grids

Distributed Battery Storage (DBS) in Low Voltage (LV) grids is an attractive solution for house owners to increase their self-consumption from photovoltaics (PV) and for Distribution System Operators…


What electricity future do informed Swiss citizens prefer?

On May 21, 2017, Swiss citizens voted for the implementation of the Energy Strategy 2050 and thus broadly approved the national focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear phaseout.…


The City Energy Analyst (CEA): An Open Source Toolbox for the Analysis of Urban Energy Systems

At Singapore-ETH Centre’s Future Cities Laboratory the Chair of Architecture and Building Systems conducts research on efficient technologies and planning concepts for emission-free buildings and…


Next Generation Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Electric vehicles powered by hydrogen polymer electrolyte fuel cells are one option to move towards a low emission transport sector. To decrease the cost of such devices, further research on the…


Electricity storage through air compression in the Swiss Alps

Electricity is increasingly generated from renewable sources like solar and wind. Because these sources are not available around the clock, it is necessary to store electricity. Researchers from ETH…


Avoiding Fatigue Cracks in High Temperature Power Plants Components

The extension of pre-existing or in-service generated defects by fatigue can be avoided in high temperature power plant components by informed mechanical analysis which fully acknowledges the…


Ninjas serve open data, enabling new insights for the energy transition

The world’s electricity systems are rapidly evolving with the deployment of weather-dependent solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind generation. Yet their variability at different scales is still poorly…


Water quality changes by hydropower reservoirs

Today, half of the global runoff is passing through reservoirs and this fraction is increasing. A new project addresses the question how hydropower schemes are changing downstream water quality.


Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies through policy combinations

Fossil fuel subsidies have major economic and environmental downsides. ETH Zurich’s Energy Politics Group (EPG) aims at identifying strategies that can overcome the political, economic and…


3D GIS for planning electric power systems

Europe’s energy suppliers need to expand or renew their grid to provide decentralized energy supply and to fulfill future requirements concerning grid stability. But where should future power lines…


Simulating Complex Turbulent Combustion in Novel Gas Turbine Combustors

A research project focusing on sequential combustion technologies for gas turbine applications is conducted at the CAPS laboratory. These new systems will respond to the more and more pressing demand…


Unlocking the Geothermal Energy Hidden Inside the Earth: Seismic Properties as a Function of Reservoir Conditions

In contrast to other renewable energy resources, geothermal reservoirs are hidden at several kilometers depth beneath our feet. During the past decades, seismic exploration methods have been…


Evaluating Reserves Performance for Aiding Renewable Electricity Integration

The goal of this work is to compare the costs and performance metrics of various reserve dimensioning methods and develop suggestions for optimal new methods that also account for integration of…


Optimizing the Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

The Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) is a CO2 capture technology that enables drastic emission reductions from power plants and from CO2- intensive industries. The possible formation of solid NH4 HCO3…


Modelling Solutions for a More Energy Efficient Future of Buildings

To realize the goals of the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050, buildings have to become more energy efficient and the share of renewable energy sources have to increase. This requires solutions to optimally…


Higher Price, Lower Costs? Introducing Minimum Carbon Prices in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

While emissions trading systems (ETS) have become centerpieces of market-based environmental regulation in many countries, they suffer from two major issues. First, they typically cover only a subset…


Humans in the Loop: A Joint Approach for Technical Optimization and Behavioral Participation for Building Energy Efficiency

Efficient building energy management has attracted a great interest due to significant potential energy savings. One obvious challenge is how to combine the efforts by engineers on improving the…


Estimating the Savings Potential of Smart Household Thermostats

Heating is the main contributor to energy consumption in households. However, many heating systems still run on fixed schedules, ignoring the fact that heating is in principle only necessary when the…


IT-Enabled Behavior Change at the Water-Energy Nexus

Traditional approaches to foster resource conservation include efficiency (infrastructure) upgrades, price increases, and information campaigns. In the past few years, behavioral interventions have…


Protecting Consumer Privacy in the Age of the Smart Meter

The advent of the smart meter in electricity grids opens the door to new grid management opportunities. However, information derivable from the resultant high-resolution data raise concerns regarding…


Sustainable Waste and Secondary Resource Management to Support the Energy Turnaround (wastEturn)

wastEturn aims to optimise the contribution of Swiss waste management to the “Energy Turnaround”, that is, the shift from non-renewable to renewable sources and reduction in overall energy…


Radical innovation for low energy concrete structures

“Low Energy Concrete”, a project supported by SNF, has been set-up to look into the improvement potential of building materials by developing low-energy construction products. A new generation of…


Temperature Dependent Capacity Utilization for Enhanced Reliability of Overhead-lines

The TeKaF project (German acronym for temperature dependent capacity utilization for overhead-lines) aims to increase reliability, safety, and capacity of the Swiss electric transmission grid. As the…


How efficient are Swiss households?

Energy efficiency is one of the pillars of the ’Energy Strategy 2050’ and therefore an important issue next to new renewables. However, how efficient are we already now? At the Centre for Energy…


Integrated Energy Systems Modelling Platform (Nexus)

The objective of this project is to develop an integrated modelling platform for assessing energy systems that cuts across the boundaries of established fields of knowledge by combining existing and…


Integration of RES in the Swiss distribution grid

The ISCHESS project studies the optimal transformation of the Swiss energy supply towards a more sustainable system through the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). The first project phase…


Electrical Energy Storage in Private Households – A Curse or a Blessing?

Storing electrical energy in private households becomes increasingly popular. If many households still demand electricity from the grid, there is a destabilizing effect due to variable quantities of…


Cost Benefit Analysis of Smart Grids

This project focuses on fundamental, cross-cutting issues that will provide a better understanding of Smart Grid ecosystems among stakeholders. It seeks to establish interfaces with existing…


Die Zukunft der Energiespeicher: Trends und offene Fragen

Speicherung hat schon immer eine wichtige Rolle im Energieversorgungssystem gespielt. Während die Speicherung fossiler Energien (beispielsweise Öl, Kohle und bis zu einem gewissen Grad Erdgas)…


Energy in Global Security Policies

Low oil prices, changes in natural gas market structures and a whole set of new suppliers: Global energy markets have seen massive changes over the last five years. This also changes the geopolitical…


The Hybrid Transformer – Towards a Smarter Grid

Approximately one-third of the worldwide primary energy is consumed in the transport sector. In order to reduce the environmental impact of the transportation, alternative propulsion systems as for…


Smart All-SiC Solid-State Transformers

Future applications such as high-speed trains or medium-voltage DC collecting grids for wind parks require a galvanic isolation between a medium-voltage system and a low-voltage system, yet the…


Plug and Play Load Control for a Sustainable Distribution Grid

Demand-side management will play a key role for improving reliability and efficiency in an increasingly complex grid, balancing large demands, e.g., caused by electric vehicles. We develop techniques…


Wind-Farm-Scale Measurements Using Mobile-Based LiDAR

45% of electricity generated from renewables by 2030 is targeted in Europe. As wind-generated electricity will be a substantial portion of this new generation, reducing the cost of wind-generated…


Price of Power System Stability

Control reserves are power generation or consumption entities that ensure balance of supply and demand of electricity in real-time. The reserves are procured through a market mechanism in which…


Large-Scale Simulation of Cloud Cavitation Collapse

Reduction in CO2 emission of internal combustion engines is of paramount importance. Efficient combustion requires precise liquid fuel injection control and enhanced fuel-air mixing. This implies…


Deep large-scale underground experiments for the development of Deep Geothermal Energy

Deep Geothermal Energy is a fundamental component of the Energy Strategy 2050 of Switzerland – expected to produce at least 7% of the present demand of electricity, or 4.4 TWh in 2050. To reach this…


The risk of cascading failures in power systems

Economic activities strongly depend on critical energy infrastructures, e.g. the electric power system. Failures in the electric infrastructure not only cause power supply disruption, but also…


WINDMIL – Smart Monitoring, Inspection and Life-Cycle Assessment of Wind Turbines

ERC Starting Grant project WINDMIL aims to establish a smart framework for life-cycle assessment of Wind Turbines (WTs), guiding the management of these assets from cradle-to-grave. The project…


Energy System Integration Platform goes into operation

Until the year 2050, the Swiss energy system is set to be restructured. The integration of electricity from photovoltaics and wind presents a major challenge to the power networks. With the Energy…


The hydraulics of low-level outlet structures of large dams

Bottom outlets are a key safety device of dams with the purpose of discharging water in a timely and quantitatively defined volume without causing damage. The high-velocity flow in bottom outlets…


Limiting climate change to 2°C requires zero CO2 emissions by the end of the century

In December 2015, the world’s governments have decided to limit global warming to well below 2°C relative to about 1850, and to pursue efforts towards an even lower target of 1.5°C. Climate…


Defaults in Green Electricity Markets – Preference Match not Guaranteed

Defaults, nudging you into a specific behavior if no active choice is taken, are popular in various fields like for instance organ donation or healthy food displays. Several electric utilities have…


Potential of biogenic combined heat and power generation in Switzerland: Project CHPswarm for power-on-demand

Project CHPswarm investigated the role, Combined Heat and Power (CHP) may play in the future Swiss energy system relying on biogenic fuels from sustainable biomass. CHP refers to an energy conversion…


Hydroabrasion-resistant materials at sediment bypass tunnels and hydraulic structures

Sediment bypass tunnels (SBT) are subjected to severe invert abrasion due to high flow velocities and sediment transport causing considerable maintenance expenses. This project addresses this problem…


Spallation drilling – a technology to boost the geothermal energy supply of Switzerland

In order to promote the development of geothermal energy production from deep resources, cost effective solutions to increase the drilling performance have to be developed. To this end, the research…


Redox flow power delivery and cooling (REPCOOL)

The research of the Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technolgies (LTNT) into redox flow electrochemistry for power delivery and cooling proposes a paradigm shift in the way we power and cool…


Quantifying the emissions and environmental impacts from thermoelectric power plants globally

The impacts on ecosystem quality and human health caused by the thermoelectric power sector are numerous, bearing on local and global scales. The overarching aim of this project is to build a…


3for2 Beyond Efficiency – a new holistic design concept for tall office buildings in hot and humid climate zones

At Singapore-ETH Centre’s Future Cities Laboratory the Chair of Architecture and Building Systems conducts research on efficient technologies and planning concepts for emission-free buildings and…


Derisking Energy Access

Approximately 1.1 billion people lack access to electricity in developing countries. Innovation and related cost reductions in decentralized energy and storage technologies make off-grid…


Enhanced Fretting Fatigue Resistance of Conductors for High Voltage Overhead Lines (CONFAT)

While overhead-line electricity transmission grids are generally well established in Europe, and there is not a big incentive to install new or replace existing conductors, there is an interest in…


Advanced Power Semiconductor Laboratory (APS)

The Advanced Power Semiconductor (APS) Laboratory at the Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering of the ETH Zurich is building up a strong competence in novel power…


DESERTECTION project

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is home to the world’s largest petroleum reserves, and also its widest desert. There are sound technical and economic reasons for that desert becoming…


Energy Storage in Chemicals

Electrical power produced by renewable energies can be chemically stored as hydrogen and other fuels via electrolysis. CO2 and H2O can be used in this context as feed in order to produce valuable…


Swiss electricity transition and the changing risks to human health, safety, natural and built environment (RIGOROuS project)

Switzerland has decided to phase out nuclear power to reduce the residual risk of nuclear accidents. What are the risks to human health, safety, natural and built environment posed by the Swiss…


The Impact of Energy Labels on Purchases of Household Appliances

Energy-efficient appliances often seem to be overlooked by households although they offer net monetary savings. Increasing the energy efficiency of purchased household appliances would provide a…


Tomorrow’s Sequential Combustion Technologies for Low Emissions and High Fuel Flexibility

A challenging research project conducted at the CAPS laboratory aims at addressing the problem of combustion instabilities in a new type of gas turbine combustion chamber. This technology step change…


Catalytic processes for carbon dioxide and natural gas valorization

The ultimate goal of this research is to upgrade abundant carbon dioxide and natural gas resources, connected with the largest greenhouse emissions from human activities, into valuable chemicals and…


GoEco! – Nudging People to Travel Sustainably

«How can I travel more sustainably?» - The GoEco! project of SUPSI and ETH Zurich tries to answer this, a question that many of us already ask ourselves. GoEco! uses a smartphone app to automatically…


Polishing the lens for sharp images of the subsurface – Improving seismic exploration of natural resources

The adverse impact of the near-surface zone on seismic data is one of the long-standing problems in seismic exploration of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. The research conducted in the…


Post-Lithium-ion battery, a new generation of an energy storage system

The primary goal of this project is to explore promise and challenge of a new type of a high-energy-density post-Lithium-ion battery, with the potential to efficiently store and supply electricity in…


Assessing Future Energy Markets (AFEM)

The project objective is to identify and evaluate the performance of alternative designs for future electricity markets, including a continuation of the current market setting, in terms of their…


Integration of sustainable Multi-Energy-hub Systems at neighbourhood scale (IMES)

This project will develop and provide a comprehensive simulation approach for decentralized power production, which tackles at the same time technical, economic and social issues.


Integration of stochastic renewables in the Swiss electricity supply system (ISCHESS)

This project studies the optimal transformation of the current Swiss energy supply towards a more sustainable system through the integration of renewable energy sources (RES).


CO2 Capture from Cement Plants (CEMCAP)

The primary objective of this project is to prepare the ground for large-scale implementation of CO2 capture in the European cement industry, which has committed itself to contributing to climate…


Promotion or steering-based energy policy (ProSTEP)

The ProSTEP project assesses and compares promotion- and steering-based regulatory instruments as envisaged in the context of the "Energy Strategy 2050" in terms of their socio-economic…


Synergistic Energy and Comfort through Urban Resource Effectiveness (SECURE)

The design and renovation of new districts calls for new methods and tools that allow more effective use of the available resources (e.g. land area, solar gains, air flows) while optimizing energy…


Optimal Energy Management of Buildings and Districts

Active building energy management is facing significant new challenges by the increased penetration of renewable sources to the grid, and the opportunity to cooperatively manage the energy demands of…


The Challenge Posed by Renewables –
 How Much Power Electronics Can the Grid Cope with?

Kick-off for MIGRATE: International project investigates requirements for Europe's future electricity grid.


Optimizing Environmental Flow Releases under Future Hydropower Operation (HydroEnv)

HydroEnv focuses on monitoring, modelling and optimizing environmental flow releases under future hydropower operation in Switzerland.


Hybrid HVAC/ HVDC Overhead Lines

This research project investigates the idea of converting existing multi-circuit AC transmission towers to hybrid AC/DC systems.


Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is developed as a powerful tool to characterize surface sites, used in energy research.


Deep Geothermal Energy: the St. Gallen project

A case study on the communication of risks and benefits, taking a “sender and receiver” model as framework.